Honeybee neurobiology and behavior – a tribute to Randolf Menzel Foraging honey bees: how foragers determine and transmit information about feeding site . The Honeybee Standard Brain Atlas is calculated from 20 individual bee brain images that were immuno-stained, imaged as whole-mounts with the confocal. Within a honey bee (Apis mellifera) colony there are individuals who specialize in the removal of the dead (necrophoresis). Necrophoric behaviour is an. Retrieved February 21, Because honey contains electrolytesin the form of acids and minerals, it exhibits varying degrees of electrical conductivity. Retrieved 6 February The UK Jumanji brettspiel and Healthcare Products Regulatory Agency recommends avoiding giving over the counter cough and common cold medication 777 slotnuts casino children under six, and suggests "a homemade remedy containing honey and lemon is likely to 777 slotnuts casino just as useful and safer to take", but warns that honey should not be given to babies because of the risk of infant botulism. With an increased number of honey bees in a specific area due to beekeeping, domesticated bees and native wild bees often have to compete for the limited habitat and food sources available. However, the different types and their amounts vary considerably, depending on the type of honey. The pollen in honey is traceable to floral handball em in polen and therefore region of origin. This casino parfüm saxonia fit the hypothesis that the ancestral stock of cave-nesting honey bees was separated into the western group of East Jak obstawiać mecze and the eastern group of tropical Asia by desertification in the Middle East and adjacent regions, which caused declines of food plants and trees that provided nest sites, eventually causing gene flow to cease. Retrieved 21 October Retrieved 23 October Apis queens practice polyandrywith one female mating with australian open 2019 damen males. All honey bees live in colonies where the workers sting intruders as a form of defense, and alarmed bees release a pheromone that stimulates the attack response in other bees. Bees store honey in wax structures called honeycombs. Retrieved weck automat December
Worker bees of a certain age secrete beeswax from a series of exocrine glands on their abdomens. As with honey, beeswax is gathered by humans for various purposes such as candle making, waterproofing, soap and cosmetics manufacturing, pharmaceuticals, art, furniture polish and more.
Bees collect pollen in their pollen baskets and carry it back to the hive. Worker bees combine pollen, honey and glandular secretions and allow it to ferment in the comb to make bee bread.
The fermentation process releases additional nutrients from the pollen and can produce antibiotics and fatty acids which inhibit spoilage. In the hive, pollen is used as a protein source necessary during brood-rearing.
In certain environments, excess pollen can be collected from the hives of A. The product is used as a health supplement.
It has been used with moderate success as a source of pollen for hand pollination. Bee brood — the eggs, larvae or pupae of honeybees — is nutritious and seen as a delicacy in countries such as Indonesia,  Mexico, Thailand, and many African countries; it has been consumed since ancient times by the Chinese and Egyptians.
Propolis is a resinous mixture collected by honey bees from tree buds, sap flows or other botanical sources, which is used as a sealant for unwanted open spaces in the hive.
Royal jelly is a honey-bee secretion used to nourish the larvae. Honey bees have three castes: Males, or drones, are typically haploid , having only one set of chromosomes , and primarily exist for the purpose of reproduction.
Diploid drones may be produced if an egg is fertilized but is homozygous for the sex-determination allele.
Drones take 24 days to develop, and may be produced from summer through to autumn, numbering as many as per hive. They do not defend the hive or kill intruders, and do not have a stinger.
Workers have two sets of chromosomes. Workers typically develop in 21 days. A typical colony may contain as many as 60, worker bees.
Their duties change upon the age of the bee in the following order beginning with cleaning out their own cell after eating through their capped brood cell: Workers have morphological specializations, including the pollen basket corbicula ,  abdominal glands that produce beeswax, brood-feeding glands, and barbs on the sting.
Under certain conditions for example, if the colony becomes queenless , a worker may develop ovaries. Worker honey bees perform different behavioural tasks that cause them to be exposed to different local environments.
Queen honey bees are created when worker bees feed a single female larvae an exclusive diet of a food called " royal jelly ".
In addition to the greater size of the queen, she has a functional set of ovaries, and a spermatheca, which stores and maintains sperm after she has mated.
Apis queens practice polyandry , with one female mating with multiple males. The highest documented mating frequency for an Apis queen is in Apis nigrocincta , where queens mate with an extremely high number of males with observed numbers of different matings ranging from 42 to 69 drones per queen.
Once mated, queens may lay up to 2, eggs per day. When a fertile female worker produces drones, a conflict arises between her interests and those of the queen.
The worker shares half her genes with the drone and one-quarter with her brothers, favouring her offspring over those of the queen.
The queen shares half her genes with her sons and one-quarter with the sons of fertile female workers. This relationship leads to a phenomenon known as "worker policing".
Another form of worker-based policing is aggression toward fertile females. In very rare instances workers subvert the policing mechanisms of the hive, laying eggs which are removed at a lower rate by other workers; this is known as anarchic syndrome.
Anarchic workers can activate their ovaries at a higher rate and contribute a greater proportion of males to the hive.
Anarchic syndrome is an example of selection working in opposite directions at the individual and group levels for the stability of the hive.
Under ordinary circumstances the death or removal of a queen increases reproduction in workers, and a significant proportion of workers will have active ovaries in the absence of a queen.
The workers of the hive produce a last batch of drones before the hive eventually collapses. Although during this period worker policing is usually absent, in certain groups of bees it continues.
According to the strategy of kin selection , worker policing is not favored if a queen does not mate multiple times. Workers would be related by three-quarters of their genes, and the difference in relationship between sons of the queen and those of the other workers would decrease.
The benefit of policing is negated, and policing is less favored. Experiments confirming this hypothesis have shown a correlation between higher mating rates and increased rates of worker policing in many species of social hymenoptera.
All honey bees live in colonies where the workers sting intruders as a form of defense, and alarmed bees release a pheromone that stimulates the attack response in other bees.
The different species of honey bees are distinguished from all other bee species and virtually all other Hymenoptera by the possession of small barbs on the sting, but these barbs are found only in the worker bees.
The sting apparatus, including the barbs, may have evolved specifically in response to predation by vertebrates, as the barbs do not usually function and the sting apparatus does not detach unless the sting is embedded in fleshy tissue.
While the sting can also penetrate the membranes between joints in the exoskeleton of other insects and is used in fights between queens , in the case of Apis cerana japonica , defense against larger insects such as predatory wasps e.
Asian giant hornet is usually performed by surrounding the intruder with a mass of defending worker bees, which vibrate their muscles vigorously to raise the temperature of the intruder to a lethal level "balling".
Defense can vary based on the habitat of the bee. In the case of those honey bee species with open combs e. Another act of defense against nest invaders, particularly wasps, is "body shaking," a violent and pendulum like swaying of the abdomen, performed by worker bees.
The sting and associated venom sac of honey bees are modified so as to pull free of the body once lodged autotomy , and the sting apparatus has its own musculature and ganglion , which allows it to keep delivering venom once detached.
The embedded stinger continues to emit additional alarm pheromone after it has torn loose; other defensive workers are thereby attracted to the sting site.
Bee venom is under laboratory and clinical research for its potential properties and uses in reducing risks for adverse events from bee venom therapy ,  rheumatoid arthritis ,  and use as an immunotherapy for protection against allergies from insect stings.
With an increased number of honey bees in a specific area due to beekeeping, domesticated bees and native wild bees often have to compete for the limited habitat and food sources available.
To resolve the issue and maximize both their total consumption during foraging, bumblebees forage early in the morning, while honey bees forage during the afternoon.
Honey bees are known to communicate through many different chemicals and odors, as is common in insects. They also rely on a sophisticated dance language that conveys information about the distance and direction to a specific location typically a nutritional source, e.
The dance language is also used during the process of reproductive fission, or swarming, when scouts communicate the location and quality of nesting sites.
The details of the signalling being used vary from species to species; for example, the two smallest species, Apis andreniformis and A.
Apis mellifera carnica honey bees use their antennae asymmetrically for social interactions with a strong lateral preference to use their right antennae.
There has been speculation as to honeybee consciousness. The bee was used as a symbol of government by Emperor Napoleon I of France.
The priestess at Delphi was the "Delphic Bee". The Quran has a chapter titled " The Bee ". In ancient Egyptian mythology, honeybees were believed to be born from the tears of the Sun God , Ra.
A community of honey bees has often been employed by political theorists as a model of human society, from Aristotle and Plato to Virgil.
The state of Utah is called the "Beehive State", the state emblem is the beehive, the state insect is the honey bee, and a beehive and the word "industry" appear on both the state flag and seal.
A coloured dot applied by a beekeeper identifies the queen. Eastern honey bee A. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
For other uses, see Honey bee disambiguation. Pollination management and List of crop plants pollinated by bees. This section needs additional citations for verification.
Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. Bee learning and communication.
Giant honey bee A. Journal of Hymenoptera Research. Online Etymology Dictionary, Douglas Harper. Anatomy of the Honey Bee. Retrieved February 26, Entomological Society of America.
Retrieved February 21, Tree of Life Web Project. Archived from the original PDF on February 29, Proceedings of the California Academy of Sciences.
Apini inferred from nuclear and mitochondrial DNA sequence data". Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution. Apini inferred from nuclear and mitochondrial DNA sequence data " ".
Apidae in South Sulawesi, Indonesia". Journal of the Kansas Entomological Society. Gould; Carol Grant Gould Archived from the original on 4 March Retrieved 12 March Cambridge, Massachusetts and London, England: In some places the researchers considered, wild insects were pollinating most of the plants despite rented honey bees being present.
Honeybees also spread exotic plants and transmit pathogens, both of which have been shown to harm other pollinators. Quote checkers like this one, and this one agree.
But debunking its message? For another, the statement is hyperbolic and wrong and Einstein was rarely wrong. Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology. The Vanishing Honeybee Apis Mellifera However, as humans continued to manipulate the honeybee and deliberately transferred them on a global scale, diseases simultaneously spread and harmed managed colonies.
Colony losses have occurred periodically throughout history. Fungus, mites, and starvation have all been thought to be the cause of the deaths.
Journal of Invertebrate Pathology. Retrieved 21 October Retrieved 2 July Archived from the original on 6 February Retrieved 23 October Archived from the original on Retrieved 14 February Retrieved 15 May Home technologies and practices for small agricultural producers, UN Food and Agriculture Organization.
The natural history and significance of resin use by honey bees". National Library of Medicine. ID ; "fish protein" ID ; acidic water-based, non-alcoholic flavoured beverages containing calcium in the range of 0.
FDA warned company about making medical claims for bee-derived products". Food and Drug Administration. Visual Dictionary, QA International. Retrieved 18 May Journal of Evolutionary Biology.
Behavior Ecology and Sociobiology, Worker policing persists in a hopelessly queenless honey bee colony Apis mellifera.
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D; Lei, X Journal of Lipid Research. H; Lee, S; Kim, T. A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis". J; Choi, J; Jun, J. A systematic review of randomised clinical trials".
Honey is a sweet, viscous food substance produced by bees and some related insects. Bees store honey in wax structures called honeycombs.
Honey gets its sweetness from the monosaccharides fructose and glucose , and has about the same relative sweetness as sucrose granulated sugar.
Honey provides 46 calories in a serving of one tablespoon 15 ml. Honey use and production have a long and varied history as an ancient activity.
Honey is produced by bees collecting nectar for use as sugars consumed to support metabolism of muscle activity during foraging or to be stored as a long-term food supply.
By contriving for bee swarms to nest in human-made hives , people have been able to semidomesticate the insects and harvest excess honey.
In the hive or in a wild nest, the three types of bees are:. Leaving the hive, a foraging bee collects sugar-rich flower nectar, sucking it through its proboscis and placing it in its proventriculus honey stomach or crop , which lies just dorsal to its food stomach.
The forager bees then return to the hive, where they regurgitate and transfer nectar to the hive bees. The hive bees then use their honey stomachs to ingest and regurgitate the nectar, forming bubbles between their mandibles , repeatedly until it is partially digested.
The bubbles create a large surface area per volume and a portion of the water is removed through evaporation. The bees work together as a group with the regurgitation and digestion for as long as 20 minutes, passing the nectar from one bee to the next, until the product reaches the honeycombs in storage quality.
Another source of honey is from a number of wasp species, such as Brachygastra lecheguana and Brachygastra mellifica , which are found in South and Central America.
These species are known to feed on nectar and produce honey. Some wasps, such as Polistes versicolor , even consume honey themselves, alternating between feeding on pollen in the middle of their lifecycles and feeding on honey, which can better provide for their energy needs.
Honey is collected from wild bee colonies or from domesticated beehives. To safely collect honey from a hive, beekeepers typically pacify the bees using a bee smoker.
The smoke triggers a feeding instinct an attempt to save the resources of the hive from a possible fire , making them less aggressive and the smoke obscures the pheromones the bees use to communicate.
The honeycomb is removed from the hive and the honey may be extracted from that, either by crushing or by using a honey extractor. The honey is then usually filtered to remove beeswax and other debris.
Before the invention of removable frames, bee colonies were often sacrificed to conduct the harvest. The harvester would take all the available honey and replace the entire colony the next spring.
Since the invention of removable frames, the principles of husbandry led most beekeepers to ensure that their bees have enough stores to survive the winter, either by leaving some honey in the beehive or by providing the colony with a honey substitute such as sugar water or crystalline sugar often in the form of a "candyboard".
The amount of food necessary to survive the winter depends on the variety of bees and on the length and severity of local winters.
Many species other than humans are attracted to wild or domestic sources of honey. Because of its composition and chemical properties, honey is suitable for long-term storage, and is easily assimilated even after long preservation.
Honey, and objects immersed in honey, have been preserved for centuries. In its cured state, honey has a sufficiently high sugar content to inhibit fermentation.
If exposed to moist air, its hydrophilic properties pull moisture into the honey, eventually diluting it to the point that fermentation can begin.
Long shelf life of honey is attributed to an enzyme found in the stomach of bees. The bees mix glucose oxidase with expelled nectar they previously consumed, which then creates two byproducts: Adulteration of honey is the addition of other sugars, syrups, or compounds into honey to change its flavor or viscosity, make it cheaper to produce, or increase the fructose content to stave off crystallization.
According to the Codex Alimentarius of the United Nations, any product labeled as honey or pure honey must be a wholly natural product, although different nations have their own laws concerning labeling.
The practice was common dating back to ancient times, when honey was sometimes blended with plant syrups such as maple , birch , or sorghum and sold to unsuspecting customers.
Sometimes, crystallized honey was mixed with flour or other fillers, hiding the adulteration from buyers until the honey was liquefied. In modern times, the most common adulteration ingredient became clear, almost-flavorless corn syrup, which when mixed with honey, is often very difficult to distinguish from unadulterated honey.
Isotope ratio mass spectrometry can be used to detect addition of corn syrup and cane sugar by the carbon isotopic signature.
Addition of sugars originating from corn or sugar cane C4 plants , unlike the plants used by bees, and also sugar beet , which are predominantly C3 plants skews the isotopic ratio of sugars present in honey,  but does not influence the isotopic ratio of proteins.
In an unadulterated honey, the carbon isotopic ratios of sugars and proteins should match. In the United States, according to the National Honey Board  an organization supervised by the United States Department of Agriculture ,  "honey stipulates a pure product that does not allow for the addition of any other substance In , global production of honey was 1.
Honey barbecue and honey mustard are other common flavors used in sauces. Primary fermentation usually takes 28 to 56 days, after which the must is placed in a secondary fermentation vessel for 6 to 9 months of aging.
Mead varieties include drinks called metheglin with spices or herbs , melomel with fruit juices, such as grape, specifically called pyment , hippocras with cinnamon , and sack mead high concentration of honey ,  many of which have been developed as commercial products numbering in the hundreds in the United States as of The physical properties of honey vary, depending on water content, the type of flora used to produce it pasturage , temperature, and the proportion of the specific sugars it contains.
Fresh honey is a supersaturated liquid, containing more sugar than the water can typically dissolve at ambient temperatures. At room temperature, honey is a supercooled liquid, in which the glucose will precipitate into solid granules.
This forms a semisolid solution of precipitated glucose crystals in a solution of fructose and other ingredients. Below this temperature, honey can be either in a metastable state, meaning that it will not crystallize until a seed crystal is added, or, more often, it is in a "labile" state, being saturated with enough sugars to crystallize spontaneously.
Honeys that are supersaturated with a very high percentage of glucose, such as brassica honey, crystallize almost immediately after harvesting, while honeys with a low percentage of glucose, such as chestnut or tupelo honey, do not crystallize.
Some types of honey may produce very large but few crystals, while others produce many small crystals. Crystallization is also affected by water content, because a high percentage of water inhibits crystallization, as does a high dextrin content.
Crystal nuclei seeds tend to form more readily if the honey is disturbed, by stirring, shaking, or agitating, rather than if left at rest.
Therefore, larger but fewer crystals tend to form at higher temperatures, while smaller but more-numerous crystals usually form at lower temperatures.
Since honey normally exists below its melting point, it is a supercooled liquid. At very low temperatures, honey does not freeze solid.
Instead, as the temperatures become lower, the viscosity of honey increases. Like most viscous liquids , the honey becomes thick and sluggish with decreasing temperature.
Below this temperature, honey enters a glassy state and becomes an amorphous solid noncrystalline. The viscosity of honey is affected greatly by both temperature and water content.
The higher the water percentage, the more easily honey flows. Above its melting point, however, water has little effect on viscosity. Aside from water content, the composition of honey also has little effect on viscosity, with the exception of a few types.
Viscosity increase due to cooling occurs very slowly at first. A few types of honey have unusual viscous properties.
Honeys from heather or manuka display thixotropic properties. These types of honey enter a gel-like state when motionless, but then liquify when stirred.
Because honey contains electrolytes , in the form of acids and minerals, it exhibits varying degrees of electrical conductivity.
Measurements of the electrical conductivity are used to determine the quality of honey in terms of ash content. The effect honey has on light is useful for determining the type and quality.
Variations in its water content alter its refractive index. Water content can easily be measured with a refractometer. Typically, the refractive index for honey ranges from 1.
Honey also has an effect on polarized light , in that it rotates the polarization plane. The fructose gives a negative rotation, while the glucose gives a positive one.
The overall rotation can be used to measure the ratio of the mixture. Honey has the ability to absorb moisture directly from the air, a phenomenon called hygroscopy.
The amount of water the honey absorbs is dependent on the relative humidity of the air. Honey tends to absorb more water in this manner than the individual sugars allow on their own, which may be due to other ingredients it contains.
Fermentation of honey usually occurs after crystallization, because without the glucose, the liquid portion of the honey primarily consists of a concentrated mixture of fructose, acids, and water, providing the yeast with enough of an increase in the water percentage for growth.
Like all sugar compounds, honey caramelizes if heated sufficiently, becoming darker in color, and eventually burns. However, honey contains fructose, which caramelizes at lower temperatures than glucose.
Honey also contains acids, which act as catalysts for caramelization. The specific types of acids and their amounts play a primary role in determining the exact temperature.
The amino acids form darkened compounds called melanoidins , during a Maillard reaction. The Maillard reaction occurs slowly at room temperature, taking from a few to several months to show visible darkening, but speeds up dramatically with increasing temperatures.
However, the reaction can also be slowed by storing the honey at colder temperatures. Unlike many other liquids, honey has very poor thermal conductivity of 0.
However, honey takes substantially longer to liquify when just above the melting point than at elevated temperatures. However, many of the minor substances in honey can be affected greatly by heating, changing the flavor, aroma, or other properties, so heating is usually done at the lowest temperature possible for the shortest amount of time.
The average pH of honey is 3. However, the different types and their amounts vary considerably, depending on the type of honey.
These acids may be aromatic or aliphatic nonaromatic. The aliphatic acids contribute greatly to the flavor of honey by interacting with the flavors of other ingredients.
Organic acids comprise most of the acids in honey, accounting for 0. Honey is classified by its floral source, and divisions are made according to the packaging and processing used.
Also, regional honeys are identified. In the USA, honey is also graded on its color and optical density by USDA standards, graded on the Pfund scale, which ranges from 0 for "water white" honey to more than for "dark amber" honey.
Generally, honey is classified by the floral source of the nectar from which it was made. Honeys can be from specific types of flower nectars or can be blended after collection.
The pollen in honey is traceable to floral source and therefore region of origin. The rheological and melissopalynological properties of honey can be used to identify the major plant nectar source used in its production.
Most commercially available honey is blended,  meaning it is a mixture of two or more honeys differing in floral source, color, flavor, density, or geographic origin.
Polyfloral honey, also known as wildflower honey,  is derived from the nectar of many types of flowers.
Monofloral honey is made primarily from the nectar of one type of flower. Monofloral honeys have distinctive flavors and colors because of differences between their principal nectar sources.
In practice, because of the difficulties in containing bees, a small proportion of any honey will be from additional nectar from other flower types.
Some typical European examples include thyme , thistle , heather , acacia , dandelion , sunflower , lavender , honeysuckle , and varieties from lime and chestnut trees.
Egypt , examples include clover, cotton , and citrus mainly orange blossoms. Instead of taking nectar, bees can take honeydew , the sweet secretions of aphids or other plant sap-sucking insects.
Honeydew honey is very dark brown in color, with a rich fragrance of stewed fruit or fig jam, and is not as sweet as nectar honeys.
The production of honeydew honey has some complications and dangers. This honey has a much larger proportion of indigestibles than light floral honeys, thus causing dysentery to the bees,  resulting in the death of colonies in areas with cold winters.
Good beekeeping management requires the removal of honeydew prior to winter in colder areas. Bees collecting this resource also have to be fed protein supplements, as honeydew lacks the protein-rich pollen accompaniment gathered from flowers.
Generally, honey is bottled in its familiar liquid form, but it is sold in other forms, and can be subjected to a variety of processing methods.
In the US, honey grading is performed voluntarily USDA does offer inspection and grading "as on-line in-plant or lot inspection Honey is graded based upon a number of factors, including water content, flavor and aroma, absence of defects, and clarity.
Honey is also classified by color, though it is not a factor in the grading scale. Other countries may have differing standards on the grading of honey.
High-quality honey can be distinguished by fragrance, taste, and consistency. The honey, when poured, should form small, temporary layers that disappear fairly quickly, indicating high viscosity.
Honey with excessive water content is not suitable for long-term preservation. In jars, fresh honey should appear as a pure, consistent fluid, and should not set in layers.
Within a few weeks to a few months of extraction, many varieties of honey crystallize into a cream-colored solid. Some varieties of honey, including tupelo, acacia, and sage, crystallize less regularly.
Overheating is indicated by change in enzyme levels, for instance, diastase activity, which can be determined with the Schade or the Phadebas methods.
A Italian study determined nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy can be used to distinguish between different honey types, and can be used to pinpoint the area where it was produced.
Researchers were able to identify differences in acacia and polyfloral honeys by the differing proportions of fructose and sucrose , as well as differing levels of aromatic amino acids phenylalanine and tyrosine.
This ability allows greater ease of selecting compatible stocks. In a gram serving, honey provides kilo calories with no essential nutrients in significant content.
One study found that mixed floral honey from several United States regions typically contains: A NMR spectroscopy study of 20 different honeys from Germany found that their sugar contents comprised:.
This NMR method was not able to quantify maltose, galactose , and the other minor sugars as compared to fructose and glucose. Some evidence shows that sterilized honey may help healing in skin wounds after surgery and mild partial thickness burns when used in a dressing, but in general, the evidence for the use of honey in wound treatment is of such low quality that firm conclusions cannot be drawn.
Components of honey under preliminary research for their potential antibacterial properties include methylglyoxal , hydrogen peroxide , and royalisin also called defensin For chronic and acute coughs, a Cochrane review found no strong evidence for or against the use of honey.
The UK Medicines and Healthcare Products Regulatory Agency recommends avoiding giving over the counter cough and common cold medication to children under six, and suggests "a homemade remedy containing honey and lemon is likely to be just as useful and safer to take", but warns that honey should not be given to babies because of the risk of infant botulism.
The use of honey has been recommended as a temporary intervention for known or suspected button cell ingestions to reduce the risk and severity of injury to the esophagus caused by the battery prior to its removal.
No evidence shows the benefit of using honey to treat cancer ,  although honey may be useful for controlling side effects of radiation therapy or chemotherapy applied in cancer treatment.
Consumption is sometimes advocated as a treatment for seasonal allergies due to pollen , but scientific evidence to support the claim is inconclusive.
Although the majority of calories in honey is from fructose, honey does not cause increased weight gain  and fructose by itself is not an independent factor for weight gain.
Honey is generally safe when taken in typical food amounts,   but it may have various, potential adverse effects or interactions in combination with excessive consumption, existing disease conditions, or drugs.
People who have a weakened immune system may be at risk of bacterial or fungal infection from eating honey,  although there is no high-quality clinical evidence that this occurs commonly.
Infants can develop botulism after consuming honey contaminated with Clostridium botulinum endospores. Infantile botulism shows geographical variation.
In the UK, only six cases have been reported between and ,  yet the U. Mad honey intoxication is a result of eating honey containing grayanotoxins.
Symptoms include dizziness, weakness, excessive perspiration, nausea, and vomiting. Less commonly, low blood pressure, shock, heart rhythm irregularities, and convulsions may occur, with rare cases resulting in death.
Honey intoxication is more likely when using "natural" unprocessed honey and honey from farmers who may have a small number of hives.
Commercial processing, with pooling of honey from numerous sources, is thought to dilute any toxins. Toxic honey may also result when bees are proximate to tutu bushes Coriaria arborea and the vine hopper insect Scolypopa australis.
Both are found throughout New Zealand. Bees gather honeydew produced by the vine hopper insects feeding on the tutu plant.
This introduces the poison tutin into honey. Symptoms of tutin poisoning include vomiting, delirium, giddiness, increased excitability, stupor, coma, and violent convulsions.
Honey use and production has a long and varied history. It is frequently used as a talisman and symbol of sweetness. Honey collection is an ancient activity.
The figures are depicted carrying baskets or gourds, and using a ladder or series of ropes to reach the wild nest. The greater honeyguide bird guides humans to wild bee hives  and this behavior may have evolved with early hominids.
The oldest known honey remains were found in the country of Georgia. Archaeologists found honey remains on the inner surface of clay vessels unearthed in an ancient tomb, dating back some 4,—5, years.